Field Procedures


Equipment List

Site Selection Criteria

Field Survey Protocol (see also "Recognizing the species")

Post-Field Protocol

Equipment List
Each surveyor should have the following items:

Maps of the sites to be surveyed
Data sheets
Pocket knife for collecting specimens
No. 3 coin envelopes
Pencil and indelible marker
Hip-pack or bag for holding collected specimens

Site Selection Criteria

Upon arrival at a potential site, verify that the site meets the following criteria:

1. There must be at least 10 deciduous hardwood trees, with a minimum diameter at breast height (dbh) of 15 cm (6 inches). Breast height is 1.37m or 4.5 feet.

2. Canopy cover should be about 50%. Areas that are extremely shaded or extremely sunny should be excluded. The ideal is a park-like setting with moderate light levels, because such sites are more likely to harbor the target If an area with a moderate light level is not available at the potential site, then the site should be rejected.

If these criteria are met, the surveyor may proceed with the field survey. If these criteria are not met, an alternate site must be selected. See [] for locations of potential sites.

Field Survey Protocol

1. Field Objectives. The first objective of each site survey is to document the presence of the four target species where they occur. Pollution-Tolerant Lichen Characteristics lists the four species and the field characteristics used to identify them. The second objective is to document the survey effort made at each site. This requires that one data sheet per surveyor per site be filled out completely and accurately. In addition to standard location information, we will be recording the species of trees surveyed and assessing the biotic cover on each tree (see Section III.E., Data Sheets).

2. Time limits. Time constraints standardize survey effort among sites and among trees within a site. A maximum of 60 person-minutes and a minimum of 30 person-minutes will be spent searching each site. This can be divided into 30 minutes per person if two people survey a site. However, if two people survey the same site, they must do so at the same time to prevent survey of the same tree twice.

At least 10 trees will be surveyed per site or the survey will not be complete. More than ten trees can be surveyed, if time allows, but the search must stop after 60 minutes. This search time does not include time spent collecting voucher specimens. It does include searching the tree trunk, litterfall, and lower branches, if applicable (as defined in section III.C.) for all four target species.

3. Surfaces to Inspect. The following parts of each tree should be inspected for all four target species:

Inspection of all of these surfaces constitutes one complete tree survey.

4. Voucher Specimens.

If a specimen appears to be one of the target species, collect a voucher specimen from the tree on which the specimen occurs. Collect a minimum of one specimen per tree per suspected target species. See the criteria outlined in Recognizing the Target Species. Please: Be discreet! Do not deface trees! Do not wield knives in public!

Numbering specimens. Label each voucher with: site name, the initials of the collector, and a collection number for the site. For example, the first collection made by Xaviera Yolanda Zimmerman at Green Lake would appear as: Green Lake XYZ01. Xaviera's 4th collection at Armitage Park would be labelled: Armitage Park XYZ04.

5. Filling out the Data Sheets.

The data sheet is on a separate page so you can print it and use it. Instructions for filling it out are given below.

Surveyors: Write down the names of all data collectors.
Date: Write in the following format: month/day/year e.g. 05/01/98.
Time: Time at which the survey began.
Location Name: The name of the site, e.g. "Scatter Creek Rest Area" or "Avery Park."
Street Location: A description of the nearest street intersection and the direction from the intersection to the site. Use the following eight directions: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Example: "NW from the corner of 8th St. and Monroe St." If there is no intersection, use helpful information such as "E side of I-5 between mile markers 344 and 345," or "N side of Hwy 20/34 just W of 35th St."
Landmarks: Any further landmarks that are useful in identifying the site, such as "adjacent to Burger King," or "area behind bathrooms," etc.
X on map: Mark an X on the area map to denote the approximate location of the site. Check off this space on the data sheet when the task is completed.
Lat/Long or UTM. Record the latitude and longitude OR UTM northing and easting for the site. This information can be obtained from the site maps. You can get coordinates from Street Atlas USA or other sources.
Tree sp. If the tree species is known, write it (or a corresponding 6-letter code, based on the first three letters of the genus and species) in the appropriate blank on the data sheet. The next best information is the genus, then common name and then, if nothing else, a general description of the tree.
Voucher #: IF SPECIES IS PRESENT (or suspected, based on Appendix A criteria): Collect voucher specimens according to guidelines above. Write the voucher number in the appropriate place on the data sheet. On the data sheet, the voucher number is the collector's initials and site collection number (e.g. XYZ07). The location name will already be recorded at the top of the data sheet. IF SPECIES IS NOT PRESENT: Place a dash or 0 in the appropriate place on the data sheet.
Trunk Cover: This will provide general estimates of cover on the tree trunks. Estimate cover ONLY on the 1 m section of the trunk between 0.5 m and 1.5 m from the ground that is being surveyed. If over 20% of the 1 m section of trunk is bare or covered by alga, moss (and liverworts), or lichen, place a B, A, M, or L in the appropriate blank on the data sheet. These are defined below.

B = Bare = >20% of the 1 m portion is completely lacking moss, lichens and algae as viewed from arm's length.
A = Alga = >20% of the 1 m portion is covered with a non-lichenized green algal blush
M = Moss = >20% of the 1 m portion is covered by any type of moss or liverwort
L = Lichen = >20% of the 1 m portion is covered by lichens, not including crustose lichens that are not visible at arm's length.

IMPORTANT: Before leaving site, double-check your data sheet to ensure that information has been entered correctly and fully. ALSO check that all collection bags are completely labeled.

Post-Field Protocol

1. If collections are damp, open and set out the collection bags to dry them.

2. Determine whether the specimens are in fact the target species. Use a dissecting microscope and chemical spot tests (see Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest). Compare with herbarium specimens of the target species, if possible. Discard specimens that are definitely not target species. Record the results of your spot tests on the envelopes. Record the results of your identifications on the data sheet.

3. Photocopy all data sheets.

4. Submit your data sheets and vouchers to the data manager for final verification and data entry.