Background on the Species

Lecanora conizaeoides - The most pollution tolerant lichen known, this species is a dominant in urban areas in Europe. It has been seen in large quantities in Seattle and Vancouver. No other sites in western North America are known.

Physcia millegrana -P. millegrana is an extremely common urban/suburban lichen throughout the midwestern and eastern United States. It is perhaps the most pollution-tolerant macrolichen known from North America. It was the only macrolichen found in Forest Health Monitoring plots in Central Park in New York City. No sites are known from western North America.

Phaeophyscia rubropulchra -- Previously thought to occur only in eastern North America, a single site is known in the West. It was found in a young conifer stand on Lookout Mountain (Neitlich & McCune 1997), downwind of Portland near Mount Hood. In eastern North America it is very common and pollution tolerant, but less so than Physcia millegrana.

Punctelia subrudecta - The main range of this species in North America is in eastern United States south to Mexico, with scattered occurrences west to Colorado and California (Hale 1965). In the Pacific Northwest, the species is fairly rare, and is usually associated with rural, suburban, and urban settings. It is known from only a few locations in the Willamette Valley, but is more common in California and very common in eastern North America.